Types of Blood Tests
Some of the most common blood tests are:
A complete blood count (CBC)
Blood chemistry tests
Blood enzyme tests
Blood tests to assess heart disease risk
Blood clotting tests
Complete Blood Count
The CBC is one of the most common blood tests. It’s often done as part of a routine checkup.
The CBC can help detect blood diseases and disorders, such as anemia, infections, clotting problems, blood cancers, and immune system disorders. This test measures many parts of your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs.
Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Abnormal red blood cell levels might be a sign of anemia, dehydration (too little fluid in the body), bleeding, or another disorder.
White Blood Cells
White blood cells are part of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels might be a sign of infection, blood cancer, or an immune system disorder.
A CBC measures the overall number of white blood cells in your blood. A test called a CBC with differential can measure the amounts of different types of white blood cells in your blood.
Platelets (PLATE-lets) are blood cell fragments that help your blood clot. They stick together to seal cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding.
Abnormal platelet levels might be a sign of a bleeding disorder (not enough clotting) or a thrombotic disorder (too much clotting).
Hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin) is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Abnormal hemoglobin levels might be a sign of anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia (thal-a-SE-me-ah), or other blood disorders.
If you have diabetes, excess glucose (sugar) in your blood can attach to hemoglobin and raise the level of hemoglobin A1c.
Hematocrit (hee-MAT-oh-crit) is a measure of how much space red blood cells take up in your blood. A high hematocrit level might mean you’re dehydrated. A low hematocrit level might mean you have anemia. Abnormal hematocrit levels also might be a sign of a blood or bone marrow disorder.
Mean Corpuscular Volume
Mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV) is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. Abnormal MCV levels might be a sign of anemia or thalassemia.
Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel
The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests usually are done on the fluid (plasma) part of blood.
The BMP can give doctors information about your muscles (including the heart), bones, and organs (such as the kidneys and liver).
The BMP includes blood glucose, calcium, electrolyte, and kidney function tests. Some of these tests require you to fast (not eat any food) before the test, and others don’t. Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for the test(s) you’re having.
Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. Abnormal glucose levels in your blood might be a sign of diabetes.
For some blood glucose tests, you have to fast before your blood is drawn. Other blood glucose tests are done after a meal or at any time with no preparation.
Calcium is an important mineral in the body. Abnormal calcium levels in the blood might suggest kidney problems, bone disease, thyroid disease, cancer, malnutrition, or another disorder.
Electrolytes are minerals that help maintain fluid levels and acid-base balance in the body. They include sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride.
Abnormal electrolyte levels might be a sign of dehydration, kidney disease, liver disease, heart failure, high blood pressure, or other disorders.
Blood tests for kidney function measure levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (kre-AT-ih-neen). Both of these are waste products that the kidneys filter out of the body. Abnormal BUN and creatinine levels might suggest a kidney disease or disorder.
Blood Enzyme Tests
Enzymes help control chemical reactions in your body. There are many blood enzyme tests. This section focuses on blood enzyme tests used to help diagnose a heart attack. These tests include troponin and creatine (KRE-ah-teen) kinase (CK) tests.
Troponin is a protein that helps your muscles contract. When muscle or heart cells are injured, troponin leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise.
For example, blood levels of troponin rise when you have a heart attack. For this reason, doctors often order troponin tests when patients have chest pain or other heart attack signs and symptoms.
A blood product called CK-MB is released when the heart muscle is damaged. High levels of CK-MB in the blood can mean that you’ve had a heart attack.
Blood Tests To Assess Heart Disease Risk
A lipoprotein panel is a blood test that can help show whether you’re at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). This test looks at substances in your blood that carry cholesterol.
A lipoprotein panel gives information about your:
- Total cholesterol.
- LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. This is the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockages in the arteries. (For more information about blockages in the arteries, go to the Health Topics Atherosclerosis article.)
- HDL (“good”) cholesterol. This type of cholesterol helps decrease blockages in the arteries.
- Triglycerides. Triglycerides are a type of fat in your blood.
A lipoprotein panel measures the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. Abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels might be signs of increased risk of CHD.
Most people will need to fast for 9 to 12 hours before a lipoprotein panel.
Blood Clotting Tests
Blood clotting tests sometimes are called a coagulation (KO-ag-yu-LA-shun) panel. These tests check proteins in your blood that affect the blood clotting process. Abnormal test results might suggest that you’re at risk of bleeding or developing clots in your blood vessels.
Your doctor may recommend these tests if he or she thinks you have a disorder or disease related to blood clotting.
Blood clotting tests also are used to monitor people who are taking medicines to lower the risk of blood clots. Warfarin and heparin are two examples of such medicines.
Source: National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, January 6, 2012